THE EFFECT OF AN OMEGA-3 AND VITAMIN E-ENHANCED DIET ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF ALPACA

E. Koutsos1, C. Kuball2, M. Griffin3, S. Tornquist4, K. Flegel5 and N. Evans6

Mazuri Exotic Animal Nutrition/Purina Mills LLC, 100 Danforth Dr, Gray Summit, MO 63039,1,2 and 3 Currently: Omega Protein, Inc, 2105 City West Blvd., Houston, TX, 77042,3 Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331,Dos Doñas Alpaca Farm, LLC, 4515 Dieckmann Lane, Florissant, MO 630345, 14413 Sinks Road, Florissant, MO 63034,6
 
 

ABSTRACT

The effect of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n3 PUFA) and vitamin E supplementation on blood fatty acids and vitamin E in alpaca were studied, and fatty acid profiles of managed alpaca were compared to Peruvian alpaca consuming native forage. In Experiment 1, 16 adult female alpaca, blocked by phenotype (n=8 Huacaya, 8 Suri), were offered either a control diet or supplemented diet through breeding, gestation and lactation. Cria remained with their dams and had access to the assigned diets until weaning at 6 months. In Experiment 2, 12 female alpaca (Huacaya) at maintenance were transitioned from their normal dietary ration to the supplemented diet for 5 months. In both experiments, blood nutrient profiles were examined. In experiment 3, the fatty acid profiles of blood samples from Peruvian alpaca (n=4) consuming native forage were analysed. Minor differences between phenotypes existed, but in general, supplemented diet consumption was associated with higher serum vitamin E concentrations compared to control or pre-supplemented diet periods (p<0.05 for each). Plasma fatty acids were changed by feeding supplemented diet, with increases in n3 PUFA concentrations (p<0.05). Peruvian alpaca had higher concentrations of n3 PUFA (particularly 18:3n3) and saturated fatty acids than US alpaca in these trials. These data demonstrate that plasma and serum fatty acids and vitamin E can be modulated by diet in alpaca and that further dietary modulation may be warranted based on values from Peruvian alpaca.

Key words:   Alpaca, nutrition, omega-3, vitamin E

Alpaca can be divided into two distinct phenotypes based on their fibre types, the Huacaya and the Suri alpaca (Frank et al, 2006). These animals are kept in the United States as a source of pleasure and for fibre production (Gegner, 2000). A number of research reports have examined alpaca nutrition (e.g., Russel and Redden, 1997; San Martin and Bryant, 1989; Van Saun, 2006 and 2009), although examination of modulation of fatty acid and vitamin E status of alpaca has not been conducted.
Increases in circulating vitamin E in ruminants is associated with improved growth rates and reduced morbidity and mortality, likely due to modulation of immune responses (McDowell et al, 1996). Improvement in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n3 PUFA) status may impact immune function and reproductive status (Mattos et al, 2004). It is likely that the fatty acid status of domestically raised animals is unlike their native-foraging counterparts, given the marked differences in fatty acid composition of wild- type green forages available at each location, and the


fatty acid contribution of the grain products and hays that would be encountered in domestic feedstuffs (Davidson, 1998; Grant et al, 2002). Therefore, a supplemented diet enriched in the n3 PUFA linolenic acid (18:3n3) as well as vitamin E was designed. The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of this supplemented diet on the plasma and serum fatty acid and vitamin E status of alpaca, and to compare fatty acid profiles from these studies to those of alpaca consuming native forage. These data were collected from alpaca farms, thus representing typical conditions experienced by US alpaca.

SEND REPRINT REQUEST TO E. KOUTSOS email: Liz.koutsos@mazuri.com

Materials and Methods

Experiment 1: Effect of fatty acid and vitamin E supplementation on breeding females and their cria Sixteen adult female alpaca (ages 1-10 years
of age at the onset of the trial) were tested in a
completely randomised block design starting in April 2008 and ending in September 2009 (location: Florissant, MO – USA). Alpaca were blocked by type (n=8 Huacaya, 8 Suri), then randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments. Alpaca in each blocked group were offered either a control diet or supplemented diet (Table 1), along with ad libitum access to grass hay and pasture. Alpacas were given access to electrolyte water as well as fresh water. Each group was housed in a 4.5 x 12 m three-sided shelter, with access to approximately 8,100-12,100 m2 of pasture. Animals had routine health checks and necessary vaccinations conducted, as well as routine faecal examinations with anthelmentic care as individually needed.
All females in the trial were bred and fed their assigned diets for the duration of the pregnancy and lactation. Alpaca were offered approximately 0.34 kg of feed/45 kg body weight per day during pregnancy and 0.43 kg feed/45 kg body weight per day during lactation. Cria remained with their dam and were also offered access to the assigned diets until weaning, at around 6 months after parturition.
A blood sample was collected via jugular venipuncture at the onset of the trial for a biochemical profile (serum, Oregon State University Veterinary Diagnostic Lab, Corvallis, OR) and a complete blood count (CBC, whole blood in EDTA tubes, Oregon State University Veterinary Diagnostic Lab, Corvallis, OR). Assays were also conducted for serum minerals (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Zn and Se) and vitamin E profile (Michigan State University Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, Lansing, MI). At 24 h post-parturition and at weaning, blood sample were collected from dams and cria and analysed for the same parameters. Additionally, at weaning, blood was collected for plasma fatty acid profile (NP Analytical Labs, St. Louis, MO). Cria serum and dam milk were analysed for IgG at 24 h post-parturition (Camelid Radial Immunodiffusion Test Kit, Kent Laboratories in Bellingham, WA).
 

Experiment 2: Effect of fatty acid and vitamin E supplementation on adult non-breeding alpaca

Twelve female weanling and yearling Huacaya alpacas housed in a 10,000 m2 pasture with a 6 x 9 m protected shed, were transitioned over a period of 2 weeks from their normal dietary ration (All-Stock sweet feed) to the supplemented diet (Table 1), then fed the supplemented diet for 5 months (Mantua, OH; October 2008-March 2009). Animals were fed 0.36 kg supplemented diet per day along with ad libitum access to grass hay and pasture. Two jugular blood samples were collected, just prior to diet transition and at the end of the trial. All samples were submitted

Table 1. Diet composition offered to alpaca (Experiment 1 and 2).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ingredients
Control Supplemented
Wheat 1midds, soybean hulls, cracked corn, oats, processed molasses, alfalfa, mono- dicalcium phosphate, molasses, distillers
dried grains and solubles, soybean meal, beet pulp, calcium carbonate, molasses, salt, brewers dried yeast, salt, apple flavouring, vitamin/ mineral mix.
Wheat midds, soybean hulls, Fibre Enhancer® (extruded flaxseed,
brewers dried yeast, wheat flour, vitamins), processed molasses, oats, beet pulp, mono-dicalcium phosphate, molasses, soybean
meal, calcium carbonate, brewers dried yeast, salt, apple flavouring, vitamin/mineral mix.
Crude protein, %1 12.0 12.5
Crude fat, %1 3.8 6.5
n6 fatty acids, %1 47.6 42.9
n3 fatty acids, %1 4.9 16.3
n3:n6 ratio2 0.10 0.38
Crude Fibre, %1 12.0 14.0
Neutral detergent
fibre, %1
30.2 31.7
Acid detergent fibre
%1
13.9 16.2
Calcium, %1 1.6 2.0
Phosphorus, %1 1.6 1.6
Sodium, %2 0.32 0.37
Magnesium, %2 0.47 0.49
Potassium, %2 1.12 1.15
Iron, ppm1 878 875
Zinc, ppm1 1305 863
Manganese, ppm1 409 263
Copper, ppm1 36 39
Selenium, ppm1 1.1 1.2
Vit A, IU/kg2 52,122 51,935
Vit D3 , IU/kg2 13,539 15,136
Vit E, IU/kg2 873 1,199
Choline, ppm2 337 337
Niacin, ppm2 436 436
Thiamin, ppm2 531 531
Biotin, ppm2 7.9 7.9
Camelid DE kcal/kg2 3,100 3,083
1 Analysed value                            Calculated value
 
for analysis of serum minerals, vitamin E, and plasma fatty acids as described above.

Experiment 3: Examination of plasma fatty acid

profile of alpaca grazing native pasture in Peru

Blood samples were obtained from four adult female alpacas (phenotype unknown) housed at La Raya Research Station, Peru in October 2008. These alpacas were pastured on native forage and were not fed complete feeds or supplements. One blood sample from each animal was taken by venipuncture from the jugular vein, separated, then stored at -20°
C. Samples were analysed for plasma fatty acids as described above.

Statistical analysis:

For Experiment 1, dam data were analysed by 2 way ANOVA (JMP, SAS, Cary NC) for main effect of dietary treatment, phenotype and their interactions, using initial measurements as a covariate and animal as the experimental unit. Dam and cria fatty acids, as well as the remainder of cria data were

analysed by 2 way ANOVA for main effect of dietary treatment, alpaca breed, and their interactions. If an interaction was significant, means were compared using Students-test. For Experiment 2, data were analysed by repeated measures ANOVA using the initial and final time points. For Experiment 3, data were subjectively compared to data gathered in Experiment 1 and 2. For all statistics, significance was achieved at p≤0.05 and trends examined at p≤0.10. In tables, text and Figs, data are presented as means ± SEM.
 

Results

Experiment 1:

Summary clinical chemistry, haematology and nutrient analysis results in dams and cria are presented in Table 2. Differences between Huacaya and Suri alpaca phenotypes were significant for several haematologic parameters in dams and cria, including dam leukocyte counts at parturition (p = 0.05; Huacaya = 13.98 ± 1.21, Suri = 9.79±0.95
 
 
Table 2.  Mean clinical chemistry and CBC in alpaca (Experiment 1 and 2).
 
 
Parameter
  Experiment 1    
Experiment 2
 
Reference Range
Dam     Cria
BUN (mg/dl)b 20.94 ± 0.51 17.23 ± 1.07 ND 13-28
Creatinine (mg/dl) 1.39 ± 0.03 1.39 ± 0.07 ND 0.9-1.7
Glucose (mg/dl) 114.09 ± 1.73 132.39 ± 5.06 ND 88-151
Cholesterol (mg/dl) 39.68 ± 1.64 54.26 ± 2.94 ND 75-150c
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 21.63 ± 1.37 47.36 ± 4.38 ND  
Total Protein (g/dl) 6.13 ± 0.06 5.46 ± 0.11 ND 5.1-6.9
Albumin (g/dl) 3.75 ± 0.04 3.42 ± 0.08 ND 3.5-4.9
Total Bilirubin (mg/dl) <0.1   0.11 ± 0.02 ND 0.005-0.42d,e,f
Creatine Kinase (U/L) 177.15 ± 35.90 98.48 ± 9.42 ND 43-750
GGT (U/L) 23.64 ± 1.20 56.13 ± 13.06 ND 10-37
AST (U/L) 192.49 ± 7.81 196.23 ± 12.68 ND 127-298
tCO2 (mEq/L) 24.34 ± 0.32 24.07 ± 0.77 21.75 ± 0.50 23-33
SDH (U/L) 3.03 ± 0.23 5.73 ± 0.70 ND 1.5-15.7
Anion gap (mEq/L) 17.70 ± 0.29 19.91 ± 0.79 ND 15-27
b-hydroxybutryate (mg/dl) 0.62 ± 0.06 0.56 ± 0.13 ND 0-2.5 f
NEFA (mEq/L) 0.21 ± 0.02 0.39 ± 0.04 ND <0.6 (Van Saun)
Haemoglobin (g/dl) 12.35 ± 0.20 12.89 ± 0.29 ND 12-18
Haematocrit spun (%) 27.57 ± 0.42 30.45 ± 0.73 ND 27-45
MCHC calc 45.71 ± 0.36 42.36 ± 0.65 ND 36-49c
WBC (x 103/μl) 12.01 ± 0.52 10.57 ± 0.55 ND 8-21.4
Seg Neut (x 103/μl) 6.29 ± 0.35 5.83 ± 0.53 ND 4.7-14.7
Band Neut (x 103/μl) ND   0.92 ± 0.89 ND  
Lympho (x 103/μl) 4.19 ± 0.31 4.34 ± 0.39 ND 0.7-4.8
             
 
 
 
Parameter
  Experiment 1    
Experiment 2
 
Reference Range
Dam     Cria
Eos (x 103/μl) 1.22 ± 0.16 0.60 ± 0.28 ND 0.7-4.7
Baso (x 103/μl) 0.04 ± 0.01 0.04 ± 0.02 ND  
Na (mEq/L) 151.25 ± 0.27 150.74 ± 0.69 150.00 ± 0.47 142-154
K (mEq/L) 4.43 ± 0.07 4.80 ± 0.09 6.93 ± 0.23 4.1-6.3
Cl (mEq/L) 114.94 ± 0.44 111.23 ± 0.58 111.86 ± 0.63 100-115
Ca (mg/dl) 8.95 ± 0.08 10.20 ± 0.12 8.90 ± 0.08 8.4-10.4
P (mg/dl) 4.83 ± 0.20 8.07 ± 0.26 7.61 ± 0.42 5.1-11.5
Mg (mg/dl) 2.20 ± 0.02 2.43 ± 0.06 2.40 ± 0.06 1.4-3.6c,d
Cu (μg/ml) 0.51 ± 0.01 0.41 ± 0.03 0.50 ± 0.02 0.25-0.85f
Fe (μg/dl) 130.11 ± 4.07 175.70 ± 17.01 128.61 ± 7.17 120-140c
Mn (ng/ml) 5.23 ± 0.77 6.13 ± 0.84 1.99 ± 0.12  
Zn (μg/dl) 0.74 ± 0.05 0.75 ± 0.07 0.54 ± 0.09 0.5-0.6c
Se (ng/ml) 228.76 ± 3.16 147.43 ± 5.48 158.00 ± 4.22 160-230c (60-140)c
Vitamin E (μg/ml) 3.53 ± 0.20 2.43 ± 0.27 1.61 ± 0.10 0.69-5.98f
             
a Reference ranges for adult animals, cria in parentheses if values differ. If no reference provided, reference range is from Oregon State University Veterinary Diagnostic Lab http://oregonstate.edu/vetmed/sites/default/files/CP_Biochemistry_Reference_ Ranges_04_09.pdf.
b Abbreviations: BUN, blood urea nitrogen; ND, not determined; GGT, Gamma glutamyl-transferase; AST, Aspartate amino- transferase; tCO2, total carbon dioxide; SDH, Sorbitol dehydrogenase; NEFA, non esterified fatty acids; MCHC, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration; WBC, white blood cell; Seg Neut, segmented neutrophil; Band Neut, banded neutrophill; ND = not detected; Lympho, lymphocyte; Mono, monocyte; Eos, eosinophil; Baso, basophil; Na, sodium; K, potassium, Cl, chloride; Ca, calcium; P, phosphorus; Mg, magnesium; Cu, copper; Fe, iron; Mn, manganese; Zn, zinc; Se, selenium.
c From (Evans, 2003)                        d From (Simons et al, 1993)
e From (Andreasen et al, 1998)         f From (Foster et al, 2009)
 
 
total leukocytesx103/µl), which was due in part to differences in eosinophil count (p=0.04; Huacaya = 1.96 ± 0.51, Suri = 0.46 ± 0.17 eosinophilsx103/µl). Similarly, cria leukocyte numbers at parturition were affected and were greater in Huacaya cria compared to Suri cria (p<0.01; Huacaya = 11.39 ± 0.80, Suri =
7.27 ± 0.75 total leukocytes x103/μl), which was due in part to differences in the number of segmented neutrophils (p<0.001; Huacaya = 8.82 ± 1.08, Suri =
3.87 ± 0.95 segmented neutrophils x103/μl). There was no phenotype affect on total leukocyte counts at weaning for dams or cria (p>0.15 for each). There was no phenotype or diet effect on colostrum or cria serum IgG at birth (mean = 19714 ± 2214, 1814 ± 292, respectively, p>0.20 for each).
Phenotype also affected dam serum calcium (Ca) levels at parturition and weaning (p=0.03, 0.05, respectively), in which Huacaya had lower mean serum Ca than Suri dams at parturition (8.69 ± 0.13 vs 9.5 ± 0.24 mg/dl) and weaning (8.49 ± 0.14 vs
9.13 ± 0.12 mg/dl), but this effect was not seen in cria. However, mean cria serum phosphorus (P) was greater in Huacaya than in Suri cria at parturition (p=0.03; 8.98 ± 0.34 vs 7.48 ± 0.44 mg/dl, respectively).

In dams, mean serum selenium (Se) concentration was lower in Huacaya than Suri dams at parturition (p=0.01; 212.25 ± 5.08 vs 236.13 ± 8.83 ng/ml) and at
weaning (p=0.04; 219.71 ± 2.04 vs 246.88 ± 8.00 ng/ ml), but there was no effect of phenotype on cria Se at either time point (p>0.20 for each). Mean cria serum bilirubin concentration was greater in Huacaya cria at parturition as compared to Suri cria (p=0.01; 0.2 ± 0.05 vs 0.11 ± 0.02, respectively).
Diet also affected several haematologic parameters. In dams, total leukocytes were different at weaning (p=0.05; Control Diet = 10.36 ± 1.03x 103/
µl, Supplemented Diet = 13.96 ± 1.09 x103/μl), and eosinophils were greater in animals fed supplemented diet as compared to control diet (parturition p=0.02; Control Diet = 0.91 ± 0.17 x103/μl, supplemented diet
= 2.03 ± 0.55 x103/μl; weaning p=0.05; Control Diet =
1.05 ± 0.24 x103/μl, supplemented diet = 2.27 ± 0.60 x103/μl). There were no significant effects of diet on cria blood leukocyte numbers.
Mean serum glucose was also different due to diet at parturition in cria, but not dams; glucose was greater in cria from dams on control diet (163.50 ±
12.49 mg/dl) as compared to those from dams on
 
supplemented diet (119.38 ± 7.25 mg/dl), but there was no difference in mean serum glucose due to diet in cria at weaning (p>0.20). Mean serum copper (Cu) was affected by a diet x phenotype interaction in cria at parturition and weaning (p=0.02 for each; Fig 1). At parturition, Suri cria from dams fed supplemented diets had higher mean serum Cu than Huacaya cria from dams fed supplemented diets (p<0.05). At weaning, a similar response was observed and additionally, Suri cria fed control diets had lower mean serum Cu than Suri cria fed supplemented diets (p<0.05). Mean serum vitamin E concentration was greater in dams fed supplemented diet than those fed control diet (p=0.05, 0.03, respectively, Fig 2A). There was a trend for a similar response in cria at parturition and weaning (p=0.08, 0.09, respectively, Fig 2B).

Diet also affected blood lipid profiles. Mean plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerols (TAG) in dams were affected by the interaction of phenotype x diet at parturition (p=0.04, 0.02, respectively, Fig 3), and TAG were similarly affected at weaning in dams (p=0.01). In general, Huacaya dams fed supplemented diet had lower concentrations of plasma cholesterol as compared to Huacaya dams fed control diet, and Suri fed supplemented diet had higher TAG as compared other animals. This difference was not observed in cria.


Fig 1. Effect of dietary supplementation and breed type of alpaca cria on serum Cu at parturition (A) and weaning
(B) (Experiment 1). a-b Within a graph, means with different superscripts are significantly different (p<0.05).
 
Mean plasma fatty acid concentrations in dams and cria are shown in Table 3. There was no effect of breed on blood fatty acids in dams or cria (p>0.20 for all). Diet affected certain blood fatty acids, primarily for dams (Table 4). Dams fed supplemented diet tended to have lower concentrations of total fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and PUFA compared to dams fed control diet (p<0.10 for each). The reduction in total PUFA was associated with lower mean concentrations of n9 PUFA but higher mean concentrations of n3 PUFA compared to dams fed control diets (p<0.05 for each). Specific fatty acids changed in response to dietary treatment: supplemented diet-fed dams had greater mean concentrations of 16:0 (palmitic acid), 17:1n7 (margaroleic acid), 18:0 (stearic acid) and 18:3n3 (linolenic acid) and lower mean concentrations of 18:1n9T (elaidic acid) (p<0.05 for each). Cria from dams fed supplemented diet had lower mean concentrations of 16:1n7 (palmitoleic acid) and 18:1n7 (vaccenic acid) and greater mean concentrations of 17:1n7 (margaroleic) and 18:0 (stearic acid) compared to those from dams fed control diet (p<0.05 for each).

 
Fig 2. Effect of dietary supplementation on serum vitamin E in alpaca A) dams and B) cria at parturition and weaning (Experiment 1). * Significantly different from control diet within an age and time point (p<0.05). # Tendency to be different from control diet within an age and time point (p<0.10).
 

Experiment 2

Mean biochemical analytes and nutrients from alpaca in Trial 2 are presented in Table 2. Several minerals were increased in serum at the end of the dietary treatment as compared to prior to feeding, including Mg (p<0.01; 2.47 ± 0.07 vs 2.28 ± 0.07 mg/ dl respectively), Mn (p=0.05; 2.26 ± 0.20 vs 1.75 ±
0.08 ng/ml, respectively), Se (p<0.01; 172.69 ± 4.51 vs
 
Table 3.  Mean blood fatty acids in alpaca (Experiment 1 to 3).
 
Fatty acid   Experiment 1    
Experiment 2
 
Experiment 3
Dam   Cria
Total Fat (mg/g) 0.69 ± 0.11   0.74 ± 0.16 0.49 ± 0.02 0.55 ± 0.06
MUFA (mg/g)1 0.06 ± 0.01   0.10 ± 0.02 0.07 ± 0.01 0.08 ± 0.02
PUFA (mg/g) 0.16 ± 0.01   0.17 ± 0.02 0.12 ± 0.01 0.11 ± 0.02
n9 PUFA 27.07 ± 5.46   24.69 ± 4.36 14.78 ± 0.39 13.32 ± 1.07
n6 PUFA 20.25 ± 2.58   20.60 ± 1.65 18.90 ± 1.22 15.88 ± 1.48
n3 PUFA 5.88 ± 0.68   5.82 ± 0.52 5.21 ± 0.48 5.96 ± 0.96
SFA (mg/g) 0.18 ± 0.01   0.22 ± 0.02 0.21 ± 0.01 0.26 ± 0.02
tFA (mg/g) 0.19 ± 0.08   0.17 ± 0.09 ND 0.01 ± 0.01
12:0 (%) 0.22 ± 0.08   0.20 ± 0.04 0.16 ± 0.01 0.31 ± 0.04
14:0 (%) 1.09 ± 0.13   1.46 ± 0.15 1.29 ± 0.05 2.27 ± 0.14
14:1n5 (%) 0.26 ± 0.11   0.15 ± 0.08 ND ND
15:0 (%) 0.84 ± 0.10   0.73 ± 0.09 1.23 ± 0.04 1.94 ± 0.08
16:0 (%) 12.78 ± 1.30   15.68 ± 1.06 20.49 ± 0.62 22.43 ± 0.70
16:1n7 (%) 1.17 ± 0.20   2.37 ± 0.45 2.63 ± 0.21 2.69 ± 0.32
17:0 (%) 0.70 ± 0.13   0.49 ± 0.09 0.64 ± 0.02 1.18 ± 0.02
17:1n7 (%) 0.31 ± 0.11   0.27 ± 0.08 0.02 ± 0.01 ND
18:0 (%) 13.32 ± 1.29   13.65 ± 1.47 19.37 ± 0.63 19.1 ± 1.43
18:1n9T (%) 19.58 ± 5.99   14.45 ± 4.76 4.53 ± 0.32 2.58 ± 0.26
18:1n9C (%) 7.20 ± 0.72   9.96 ± 1.17 10.44 ± 0.36 10.32 ± 1.34
18:1n7C (%) 0.36 ± 0.04   0.54 ± 0.08 0.92 ± 0.12 0.68 ± 0.12
18:2n6 (%) 17.39 ± 2.43   17.70 ± 1.46 17.11 ± 0.88 14.38 ± 1.40
18:3n6 (%) 0.22 ± 0.02   0.19 ± 0.03 0.33 ± 0.05 0.03 ± 0.04
18:3n3 (%) 3.04 ± 0.34   2.92 ± 0.30 2.29 ± 0.21 3.73 ± 0.60
18:4n3 (%) 0.11 ± 0.04   0.08 ± 0.03 0.07 ± 0.02 ND
19:0 (%) 0.14 ± 0.04   0.12 ± 0.04 0.23 ± 0.02 0.12 ± 0.10
20:0 (%)